"Disinfectants kill present unwanted microrganisms in water. There are various different types of disinfectants: · Chlorine (dose 2-10 mg/L) · Chlorine dioxide · Ozone · Hypochlorite
Chlorine dioxide disinfection ClO2 is used principally as a primary disinfectant for surface waters with odor and taste problems. It is an effective biocide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm and over a wide pH range. ClO2 penetrates the bacterial cell wall and reacts with vital amino acids in the cytoplasm of the cell to kill the organisms. The by-product of this reaction is chlorite. Chlorine dioxide disinfects according to the same principle as chlorine, however, as opposed to chlorine, chlorine dioxide has no harmful effects on human health.
Hypochlorite disinfection Hypochlorite is applied in the same way as chlorine dioxide and chlorine. Hypo chlorination is a disinfection method that is not used widely anymore, since an environmental agency proved that the Hypochlorite for disinfection in water was the cause of bromate consistence in water.
Ozone disinfection Ozone is a very strong oxidation medium, with a remarkably short life span. It consists of oxygen molecules with an extra O-atom, to form O3. When ozone comes in contact with odour, bacteria or viruses the extra O-atom breaks them down directly, by means of oxidation. The third O-atom of the ozone molecules is than lost and only oxygen will remain.
Disinfectants can be used in various industries. Ozone is used in the pharmaceutical industry, for drinking water preparation, for treatment of process water, for preparation of ultra-pure water and for surface disinfection. Chlorine dioxide is used primarily for drinking water preparation and disinfection of piping." - Lenntech (a water treatment chemical supply company in The Netherlands)
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